Things you need to know about Self-propelled vehicles (AGVs)

What is AGV?

AGV stands for Automation Guided Vehicle. Means self-propelled and transport vehicles. This is a smart product to transport goods without human intervention. The product is easy to install and operate, especially can operate continuously at the factory. AGV is often used in automobile assembly plants, parts production, large warehousing systems, etc.

Types of AGV

There are many types of AGVs that have been manufactured and put into use. But there are 5 most common types including:

Pull type

AGV loại kéo

Pull type AGV

Low floor type

AGV loại sàn thấp

Low floor type

Conveyor type

AGV loại băng tải

Conveyor type AGV

Outdoor type

AGV loại ngoài trời

Outdoor type AGV

Special type

AGV loại đặc biệt

Special type AGV

The general structure of an AGV

Cấu tạo của AGV

Construction of self-propelled vehicles AGV

1. Route detector 7. Central control unit
2. Obstacle detection sensor 8. Parts connecting the truck
3. Anti-collision sensor 9. Location sensor
4. Driver and Engine 10. User interface
5. Remote transceiver set 11. Chassis
6. Battery and charger


The AGV includes the following part:

Road detector, there are 2 types:

Free path navigation

A highly flexible AGV vehicle positioned by the gyroscope sensor. These sensors are responsible for determining the direction of travel. There is also a laser sensor used to determine the position of surrounding objects during movement. Or a local navigation system (local navigation location) in charge of determining coordinates immediately, …

This type has the characteristics of being able to move to any position within the control. It can automatically search the shortest path. However, the cost of manufacturing is large and requires high technology.

AGV chạy không theo đường dẫn

Image of AGV type vehicles not following the path

Fixed path navigation

The materials used to create the path include Colored lines, magnetic tape, magnetic lines, rails, etc. At that time, the AGV autonomous vehicles will follow these paths to the specified locations on the map. movable items.

This type is characterized by a fixed path. When you want to change the path, you need to reset the navigation system. However, this control technology is simpler and has a lower cost than the roadless type. Sensors used for this type can be magnetic sensors, optical sensors, metal sensors.

AGV chạy theo đường dẫn

Image of AGV vehicles which following along the path

Obstacle detection sensor

To ensure safety during movement, AGV needs sensors that detect obstacles within the moving range. This sensor can be a laser sensor, an optical sensor, or an ultrasonic sensor, depending on the configuration selected.

Usually, the sensor will divide into 3 working areas from near to near. If the obstacle is in these 3 zones, AGV will take action: alert, slow down, stop quickly to ensure safety.

Anti-collision sensor

The collision sensor has an AGV stop function immediately if impacted. It is used to limit safety issues that may occur when a self-propelled vehicle is hit by another object.

Driver and engine

The engine is the main moving part of a self-propelled vehicle. Depending on the load of an AGV, there may be one or two drivers and engines. This will also determine the capacity, motor voltage and capacity of the battery.

Data transmission equipment

An AGV will transmit and receive data with the production control center via remote transceiver system. In this way, AGV will enhance the flexibility, can transmit information at any location within range. Besides, the operator will control the working route, vehicle status. These devices include RF or Wifi transceivers.

Battery and charger

There are many types of batteries and chargers. These include lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries – LIFE04 or lead + acid batteries, dry batteries. This unit can be made either by automatic charging or manual charging.

Remote transceiver set

The controller is programmed to operate a vehicle independently, in combination with multiple vehicles or under the control of the operating center.

Parts connecting the truck

This unit helps to connect with the truck, which can operate automatically or manually.

Location sensor

Location sensors are used to identify landmarks. For example, pick up point, drop off point, turn, stop, charging point … At the same time, they help the control center to determine the exact location of the vehicle on the moving map. There are many options to use such as reader and magnetic card or use the tape itself to locate.

User interface

A user interface including screen, push-button system and indicator light.

  • Monitors used in the process of setting vehicle parameters. At the same time, it will display the status, status, location of the vehicle on the moving map.
  • Push buttons and indicator lights: Controlling and setting by screen allows minimizing buttons and indicators. Therefore, the rest of the buttons and indicators include emergency stop button, work completion confirmation button, auto / manual switch, an indicator of vehicle operating status.

In addition, the mechanical structure includes chassis, cover, wheel, chuck, or other constituent parts. They are also important parts of AGV. It determines the ruggedness, adhesion to the road surface, the smoothness during moving, the durability for long-term operation in industrial conditions. All combined to create a complete AGV.

Flexible applicability of the AGV system

Along with the expansion of production of factories, the requirements for transportation, loading and unloading of goods have become increasingly important. With the tendency of automation to replace labor in the manufacturing sector, transportation systems inside factories in the form of conveyors or AGV are becoming increasingly important in the entire field of material transport. Especially in factories producing electronic components, molded products, assembly details, pharmaceutical cosmetics, food – beverages, …

Pulled type AGV is the most widely used among the AGV series in the manufacturing process. Because it can pull many rear cargo boxes. The total load can be up to 1000 kg. By using this AGV line, factories can reuse previous containers without having to invest in new ones. All we need to do is the connecting rods to link the boxes behind the AGV like a factory train.

Hopefully, this article has provided you with useful information about AGV autonomous vehicles. See you in the next posts.